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Numeracy - Original (3-item) Scale

Schwartz, L. M., Woloshin, S., Black, W. C., & Welch, H. G. (1997). The role of numeracy in understanding the benefit of screening mammography. Annals of Internal Medicine, 127(11), 966-972.
See also the expanded 11-item Numeracy measure by Lipkus et al. (2001) and the further expanded 15-item Numeracy measure by Peters et al. (2007).


Table of Contents


Description


History of Use


References


Description:

Purpose

The Numeracy measures were designed to assess numeracy, which is the ability to understand and use numeric information.
  • Specifically, the original measure assesses understanding of chance, proportions, and percentages.
  • See also the expanded Lipkus et al. (2001) 11-item measure and Peters et al. (2007) 15-item measure.
Questions

3 items using fill-in-the-blank responses
Sub-scales

N/A
Domain


Psychometrics


Sample items

  • Imagine that we flip a fair coin 1,000 times. What is your best guess about how many times the coin would come up heads in 1,000 flips? __ times out of 1,000.

References:

Scale:
Schwartz, L. M., Woloshin, S., Black, W. C., & Welch, H. G. (1997). The role of numeracy in understanding the benefit of screening mammography. Annals of Internal Medicine, 127(11), 966-972.
Other Versions of Numeracy:
  • Lipkus, I. M., Samsa, G., & Rimer, B. K. (2001). General performance on a Numeracy Scale among highly educated samples. Medical Decision Making, 21(1), 37-44. doi: 10.1177/0272989X0102100105
  • Peters, E., Dieckmann, N. F., Dixon, A., Slovic, P., Mertz, C. K., & Hibbard, J. H. (2007). Less is more in presenting quality information to consumers. Medical Care Research and Review, 64(2), 169-190. doi: 10.1177/10775587070640020301
Uses:
  • Garcia-Retamero, R., & Galesic, M. (2009). Communicating treatment risk reduction to people with low numeracy skills: A cross-cultural comparison. American Journal of Public Health, 99(12), 2196-2202. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.160234
  • Reyna, V. F., & Brainerd, C. J. (2008). Numeracy, ratio bias, and denominator neglect in judgments of risk and probability. Learning and Individual Differences, 18(1), 89-107. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2007.03.011
  • Reyna, V. F., Nelson, W. L., Han, P. K., & Dieckmann, N. F. (2009). How numeracy influences risk comprehension and medical decision making. Psychological Bulletin, 135(6), 943-973. doi: 10.1037/a0017327