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Iowa Gambling Task (IGT)

Bechara, A., Damasio, A. R., Damasio, H., & Anderson, S. W. (1994). Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition, 50(1-3), 7-15. doi: 10.1016/0010-0277(94)90018-3


Table of Contents


Description


References


Description:

Purpose

The IGT was designed to assess risk preferences by simulating real-life decision making using uncertainty, rewards, and penalties. It was originally used to compare individuals with prefrontal lesions with healthy individuals.
Questions

In the game, players are given four decks of cards and an endowment of fake money (e.g., $2000). Players are instructed to select cards one at a time and try to lose the least amount of money and win the most.

Turning a card results in a reward ($100 in decks A and B and $50 in decks C and D) or a penalty (large in decks A and B and small in decks C and D). Playing from decks A and B leads to an overall loss, while playing C and D leads to an overall gain. Players do not know how many cards will be in the decks (100 in the original design). After encountering a few losses, normal participants begin to avoid the decks with large losses.

Patients with bilateral damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortices do not (Bechara et al., 1994).
Sub-scales


Domain


Psychometrics


Sample items

Players choose a card from one of four decks and receive a payout:
Screen shot of the IGT.  Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:IowaGamblingTask.gif
Screen shot of the IGT. Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:IowaGamblingTask.gif



References:

Scale:
Bechara, A., Damasio, A. R., Damasio, H., & Anderson, S. W. (1994). Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition, 50(1-3), 7-15. doi: 10.1016/0010-0277(94)90018-3

Uses:
  • Bechara, A., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. R. (1996). Failure to respond autonomically to anticipated future outcomes following damage to prefrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 6(2), 215-225. doi: 10.1093/cercor/6.2.215
  • Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A. R. (1997). Deciding advantageously before knowing the advantageous strategy. Science, 275(5304), 1293-1295. doi: 10.1126/science.275.5304.1293
  • Hooper, C. J., Luciana, M., Wahlstrom, D., Conklin, H. M., & Yarger, R. S. (2008). Personality correlates of Iowa Gambling Task performance in healthy adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(3), 598-609. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.09.021
  • Upton, D. J., Bishara, A. J., Ahn, W. Y., & Stout, J. C. (2011). Propensity for risk taking and trait impulsivity in the Iowa Gambling Task. [Article]. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(4), 492-495. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.11.013


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